Masturbation - 1,, Videos - iWank TV

Big Innocent Eyes&excl


Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 01.01.2021
Last modified:01.01.2021

Summary:

Sex dating in Marienberg. All our thumbnail pictures are automatically produced from screenshots of videos which are. Wenn du da bist, Moringa oder Alfalfa knnen hier ausgleichend und harmonisierend wirken und so ihren Beitrag zu einer erfllten.

Big Innocent Eyes&excl

flames in its eyes is standing next to the innocent face. annabieler. child makes the child seem even more innocent, a zoom to a face focuses on a slight smile. The Largest Database of Free Porn Movies. Watch Best Sex Videos from Japanese Porn to Teen Sex Movies. Upornia is the Best XXX Tube of all Free Porn. Auf Discogs können Sie sich ansehen, wer an CD von Innocent Eyes - Interview Innocent Eyes - Interview Disc (CD, Promo) Plattencover 24, My Big Mistake, "Epic" is the exclusive trademark of Sony Music Entertainment Inc.

Camgirl big boobs 6

Duration: Categories: babes, big tits, doggy style, hardcore, cartoon, hentai, 3d PlayboyPlus Wu Muxi Innocent Eyes · Exclusive Club - Frederica. Categories: babes, blowjobs, big cock, facials, pornstars, blonde LegalPorno - Lina Love - GG Exclusive Anal Lina double anal · Kari Full - Service Part 1 PlayboyPlus Wu Muxi Innocent Eyes · Cate Harrington very hot by the pool. The Largest Database of Free Porn Movies. Watch Best Sex Videos from Japanese Porn to Teen Sex Movies. Upornia is the Best XXX Tube of all Free Porn.

Big Innocent Eyes&excl Young Wild West's risky ride, or, Arietta and the Gulch Gang Video

Ash Minor - Innocent Eyes

Auf Discogs können Sie sich ansehen, wer an CD von Innocent Eyes - Interview Innocent Eyes - Interview Disc (CD, Promo) Plattencover 24, My Big Mistake, "Epic" is the exclusive trademark of Sony Music Entertainment Inc. huatongxin Soft Kissenbezug Big Grey Owl with Innocent Eyes Decorative Quadratischer Kissenbezug Sofa Schlafzimmer Auto Kissenbezug 18x18inches. Das Ist Big und Grober ASS BBW Beautiful on zlmyf.com #german #dutch #​bigass *EXCLUSIVE SXP OFFER - JOIN BRAZZERS ONLY 1$ TODAY!* Innocent Eyes Latina Blowjob zlmyf.com #cute #Latina #blowjob #oral #sex​. flames in its eyes is standing next to the innocent face. annabieler. child makes the child seem even more innocent, a zoom to a face focuses on a slight smile.
Big Innocent Eyes&excl

Frischer Big Innocent Eyes&excl gefllig. - Product details

CDPromo. Hier klicken. Obviously she has released albums since and this one is quite old now but it is one of those cds that you dont have to skip your way through. No customer reviews. Please make sure that you've entered a valid question. Such pilgrims Längste Videos nach Tag: amateur pornos had been in Palestine bore palm-branches, and were hence called palmers. Come here, Sneaky Dic k Playboy Tv Videos the ugliest and dirtiest-looking rum. Only four years remained to the life of Alfred, but they were glorious years for England. An a p pli ance which will render aeroplanes so etable that they cannot upset o r plunge to the ground while Hying is clai med to have been invented by a Belgian engineer It consists of rotatory wings ,1hic h, when put in motion, pe r m i t the machines to rise directly from the ground, turn i n a ll directions and soar with perfect security at any h e i g h t Both pro g r ession and ascension, the inventor as s erts, can be effected by blood sex tube apparatus without any back w ard o r forwar d motion of Big Innocent Eyes&excl wings GREAT SLIDES AT CULEBRA. From this union of a Saxon yeoman and a Saracen maiden, sprang Thomas k Becket.

One said as he coolly dismounted. Eloise Gardner. A leather wallet, spread wide open and lying between the The two Chinamen were brothers, bearing the names of seats, was right before their eyes, as if to mock them and Hop Wah and Wing Wah, and were employed as servants by make them unden;;tand what had happened at the same time.

The heathens looked much alike, and were typical of thei r "So that is what you call them? But we'll find out pretty quicldy, won't we, many times he had been the direct means of saving their boys?

I him. The astounded mau in charge of the Halfway House looked It was really not for the work he did that he was kept in a,: them in a puzzled way.

At oP. Take Hop had eclipsed him, and Wing seemed to be sati! But enough about the Chinamen for the present. I reckon the driver will be found before long.

Sometimes i Young Wild West and bis partners were very much inter road-agents think it fun to mal,e a man foot it back home. I take 1t that. I tures of Young Wild West know fully well that the ycun; I T hat empty pocket-book signifies that much.

Hes said to be ther Champion der was coupled with it. Deadsbot of ther West, an' he's. Heard of him! We wiil "I know it. Why don't you thank him for havin' come along take a ride along the trail and try and find the driver and the jest in time to help us out?

It rs just about "I forgot about that. Young Wild West, I want to thank neon now, but I reckon we can wait a while for our dinner.

M:e wantee go, too,. M:lsler Wild," Hop Wah spoke up, as thanks due. No, you stay here and help wing l ook after things.. If you can tell where they are suppos e d attention to one of the pack-horses, which he had led to the to hang out we will start right out to bunt for them.

The : g irls and the two heathens can put u p here till we get the job scene t h r o u gh with, I suppose?

I've got accommodations here for a few Gregory spoke up. She's nigh around the gulch they might be hidin' somewhere, expectin' ab out scared to death at seein' ther stage come without a some one would come to look for Zeb Holcomb.

Dutch Perry, driver. Sal always was a mighty timi d ga l an' she's been which is the leader of the gang, as I've beard te11, is said to gittin' worse as she growed older.

Here, Sal! Come out an' be a mighty,dangerous man. He knows a whole lot, too, an' take care of these here ga l s. This is Young Wild West.

Somethin' has happened to Zeb by the sheriff. We are Out came a middle-aged woman, acting as though she was going to see what happened to the stagecoach and why it came not quite sure it was advisable for her to do so.

Ri gh t he r e we may as we ll mention the names of those who It wound its way along close to the foot of tall cliffs for trave l ed about through the wildest parts of the Wild West perhaps half a mile.

Then the mouth of a narrow gulch showed up, with a T he tall man with the long b lack hair and mustache, who stream of water running through it, though tbere was not has b een mentioned, was Cheyenne Charlie the scout ana much ,depth to the stream just now.

Indian fig hter, and one of the "girls" was hjs wife, Anna. The trail wounrl along parallel with the creek, as it might T lie boy was Jim Dart, and he and the scout were known as be called, and was close to the left side of the gulch.

PAGE 4 YOUNG WIL] WEST'S TIISKY RIDE. A party of hnters came along after the redskins had made their escape and I was found. One of the hunters was named William West, and he adopted m e It was he who gave me the name.

Now, then, if you think I was a foundling it's all right. I can't help it if I was. But since you offered to tell your name you can go ahead and do it now.

I wasn't at all inter ested at first; but I am now. I'd like to know just who you are and what you are doing around h ere. You can suit yourself about tell ing your name.

He's a total stranger to me, Young Wild West. You guessed it just right, driver. That ls my line of business, though I call m yse lf a gentleman of leisure.

I'll do that, though I don't much care to handle the dead. I am afraid you have got a wrong impression of me, because I acted in such a light-hearted way.

But I couldn't help it. When I meet veo:ile who are very ignorant, I am so surprised that I am apt to forget how to act myself.

If you asl, any one over at Dry Creek Station about m e they'll tell you t hat I am a pretty slick gambler. But that's all right.

Gambling is honest, if you do it in the right way. As th2y disappeared behind a bend our hero turned to the three men and said: "Now, then, you go right on I reckon we'll go back there and see to it that nothing happens to our partner.

That fel l ow knows more about the hold-up than you have any idea of, I reckon. But we haven't time to talk about it now.

You go right on. We ll overtake you before you get to the Halfway House. That fellow is surely one ol t h e G ul ch Gang, as they call It.

Perhaps he is the leader, though I.. There certainly isn't anything Dutch or German about this f ellow. But it may be a nickname.

It looks to me as though we are going to get the bunch of scoundrels in a hurry. Take it easy now, for he may think we are following him. Wild and Jim did not hurry, but waited a couple of minutes.

Then they started their horses at a gallop and rode on over t he trail through the gulch B oth v,,ere very good judges of distance, and without see1ng anything more of the two ahead of them, they presently came t o a halt when they judged that they had covered a distance o f two miles.

The gulch was a trifle narrower here than at any other part of i t and the stream almost stretched clear across it.

B u t there was room enough at the left for a wagon. Across the. At the left It rounded off in a sort of steep slope aw a y up for a couple of hundred feet or more.

Wild decided to dismount here, so he promptly did so, and Jim Dart followed suit. I wonder where Charlie and the fellow are? Here are the hoofprints, all right, so all we have got to do is to follow them.

I reckon we'll leave the horses here and go ahead a little distance. If we find that they have gone right on we'll c ome back and mount again and follow Dart nodded to show tha t ho was perfectly satisfied with what the boy sai d, and then the tw o proceeded on and rounded an angle of the cliff.

Lying behi nd a big rock they saw the body of a m a n that was covered with a blanket. They quickly hastened to it, and then Wild examined the ground carefully.

But it was so hard and stony there that the hoofprints could no longer be seen. That sneaking coyote has got the best of Charlie. He has taken him and his horse, too, into some cave, no doubt the headquarters of the Gulch Gang.

They moved about, watching behind the rocks and looking for an aperture that might lead into a cave. But there was no such thing there, so they went on a little further.

Then they suddenly saw a horse standing a short distance ahead of them. It was Cheyenne Charlie's, and the moment the t-wo caught sight of it they knew for a certainty that the scout had fallen into the hands of the Gulch Gang.

They hastened to the horse, and as they neared it they suddenly came upon another. It was the one Jack Duncan had been riding.

Help me! I'm hurt! We rode up to see who was here and then the first thing I knew I was hit on the head and knocked senseless.

But let me see how badly you are hurt. The blow I received rendered me unconscious, that's all. I've got a lump on the back of my head, though.

Wild felt of his head and failed to discover any. He knew the man was lying, but for reasons of his own he did not say anything about it just then.

But there may have been more. They took my guns from me, I think. It seems that the Gulch Gang were here and caught you napping.

But I don't understand why they left Duncan lying here. Do you supp o s e they could have t a k e n y our pard a p r isoner?

He isn't anywhere to b e seen. Try to find him? The best thing you can do, Mr Duncan, is to mount your horse and r i de on to the Half-way Hous e.

W e 'll c ome back in a little while and we 'll bring Ch ey enne Charlie with us. Go ahead. B u t h e manage d to mount"all right, and, without w aiting a s econd,' rode on back through the gulch.

CH APTER III. DUNCAN SHOWS HIS H A ND. Ch eyenne Ch arlie w a s certain that Wild and Jim meant to fo llow when h e rod e aw a y wi:th Jac k Duncan.

D u n can talked g l! But I've got you dead to rights. Before h e could free himself from the rope, Duncan sprang u po n him a n d wrenche d t h e gun from his hand..

This i s what I c a ll a prize the vill ain said, with a laugh. I'm sorry it isn't the bo y himself, fo r I have eve r y reason to believe that he has co me he re f o r t h e pur pose of cl eaning out the Gulch Gang.

I r a t h e r think y ou have lived long enough, Cheyenne Charl! You see I know y o u r name. B u t alread y others we r e upon the scene.

A r ope was qui ckly wound a b out his body, pinning his arms to h i s side s, and a h eavy hand was pressed over his mo u t h to k eep him from shouting and calling for assistance.

Then h e was h ustle d along the trail a f e w yards, after which h e was li f t e d eas il y and carried over some rocks into a narrow ope ning, whic h h e quickly found led into a cave that was partly lighted throug h a long rif t in the natural ceiling.

Jack D uncan f oll o w e d them in, and when the y finally re;i. Quite a snug plac e h e re, isn't it, my friend?

The boy is a dangerous one, a n d I kno w it. That' s why I was so willing to com e with y ou t o g e t the bod y of the man who was shot.

But, as it is it w ill come out all right Y oung Wild We s t and the othe r f e ll ow will certainly c om e to l oo k for y o u and when they do w e r:;1a y have a chance to catc h the m.

I am going out now to watch for them, though I hardly think they will come right away They'll probably wait until they think we ha"fe been gone too long, a n d then they' ll r ide back to see what is delaying us.

Dutch, just s e e to it that t h i s f e llow is well taken care of until I come back. They won't b e along jus t y e t. But I'll go out and make sure of it.

He could not ge t his horse in by tha t way, but there was a wider pass a ge a little furt h e r on, a n d with the intention of getting the a nima l after he had made sure that no one was comin g up the gulch, h e stepp e d out upon the trail.

He had b a r e l y done s o when he saw Young Wild West and Jim Dart com i ng. Knowing well the r eputation of the young deadshot, he was seiz e d with a sud de n fear, and, acting on an i mpulse he called out that h e was hurt, as has already been describ ed.

The villain knew if h e trie d to get bacl, to the cave they w o uld surely s ee him, and this might m ean that h e would be shot, so h e acte d in.

He had manage d to hid e the t wo r e volve r s h e carried behind a stone jus t as our h ero and Jim Dart ran u p to him. But whe n h e s aid he h ad l os t his mone y h e had not s11oken truthf ull y But as the y had not o ffere d t o search him it was all right.

As the villain ro d e on tow a r d the Half-way House he blamed h i mself for h a ving discarded his weapons.

Wild and Jim h a d not seare; h e d him, though he had con vin c ed them that h e was r eally wi t h out any arms. If I had starte d to g e t back i n to the cav e they would surely have see n m e The n I would eithe r have b ee n shot b y them or they would hav e disc ov e r e d the way to get int o Dut ch Perry's hiding p lace.

T hings are working in a rather funny way now, and I can' t imagine just h o w the y will com e out. But there is one thing sure, and t hat i s that Dutch won't let the prisoner go.

I m ust play the part o f a man who h a s been r obbed and ill-treated no w and I r ec lrnn I'll be ab! The man at the Half-w a y H o u s e knows me, all right, for I have stoppe d there s everal t i m e s The r e will be no trouble about that part o f it.

T h e onl y thing is that if Young Wild West and the othe r fell ow c om e back they might take a notion to make me a prisone r, for I am well satisfied that they suspect that I belong to the Gulch Gang.

I was knocked down, and that's all I know. The man with me must have been taken away by them. I lay on the ground when Young Wild West and the other boy came along.

They found I was hurt and. I don t know where they are now, but they said they were going to look for the other fellow.. That's a funny kind of story," the driver declared, for he, too, had his suspicions concerning the man.

I ways carry two. I saw two or three men, and that's all I know. It was some little distance from that. All right, we'll all go on, then.

But jest as soon as I kin git a horse I'm comin back to see what's goin' on. When the villain saw the girls, who were at the front of the house at the time, he gave a start, while a peculiar light shone in his eyes.

I've heard tell of 'em. There's a heathen, too. He's one of the party, I reckon. I am very dazed. I got a rap on the head with something not long ago and I haven't recovered from it yet.

I suppose it was the Gulcll Gang who attacked me But Gregory hardly heard what he said, for he was now shaking hands with the driver and asking him all sorts of questions.

Arietta came forward, and Anna and Eloise were not Jong in following. They were anxious to know what had become of Wild and I.

But Zeb Holcomb had so much to tell about the hold-up that it was some little time before they could get any information.

Finally the card-sharp turneti to them and, doffing his hat, said: "Lddies, I take it that you are anxious to know something concerning Young Wild Wes t and his pards.

Thon he told his story, acting as though he sympathized greatly with them as he die! Anna was dismayed when she learned that Charlie had dis appeared in such a mysterious fashion cheerfully ever since they arri'ved, eve n though she felt badly over the hold-up and the non-appearance of the driver.

But he had arrived now, and no one was hurt, so that put a different aspect upon things. However, the story the card-sharp told had considerable effect upon her, especia lly when she saw how an:r.

Jack Duncan was what might be called a rather ,; fresh" man, if nothing e lse. He showed plainly that h e liked the society of the girls, and h e talked on almost every subject until they became tired of him.

Every now and then Anna would go out upon the rickety old porch and look for tidings of her husband and his partners. Finally Arietta became tired of the man's company and she started for the kitchen, where Mrs.

Gregory was preparing dinner for them. Maybe I can help you out a little. Let mo go with you. Probably we can hurry matters along a little.

Why, I thought my company was quite agreeable. I l go on out, then. But never mind, little girl. I shall remember this. Hop wn. This man seems to be rather fr esh, though.

Some peo p le are cow ardly, though. But it was not the first time anything like that had hap-pened, and since Wild and Jim were looking for h im, she "See here, girl," the card-sharp spoke up, angrily, "I've ho1;ed and trusted that everything would be all right.

Please drop the subject. Her conclusion was that there was something wrong about "You gittee outtee here! Duncan thrust himself upon their company and even f ollo wed Completely cowed, and not a little frightened, Duncan the m when they went into the house.

The Hal f-way House was an old-fashioned structure, and l ''Me fixee velly muchee quickoe, Missee Alietta," Hop said, had been used before it became a station for the stagecoach with a grln.

Me gottee no bulline as a ranch-house. Pletty soonee But the grazing had grown poorer every year, and the owner me shootee, and!

Arietta could not help laughing now, even though she had However, it was all that was required for the purpose, and been somewhat angered by the manner of the rascally man.

Dan Gregory's wife usually served meals to those want! Il'g "I honestly bell eve," she said, nodding to Anna and Eloise, them while the horses were being changed.

I have met such Very few 11;1,p! He is somewh:. How many True, there were quite a few miners who had their wives times have we seen it that way before, girls?

He velly muchee bad Mellcan certain thing sll. Me knowee lat," was the reply. Whiie I hardly think that Charlie is in any Along the trail the brave girl went at a gallop, the Chinagrrnt dange r, be may have been caught by the Gulch Gang, as man keeping close to her, and soon they were lost to the view they call it.

But that don't rrean that he is going to stay of those standing on the porch. Just then the mistress of the house came into the room But th ey knew pretty well how far they had to go, for the and with a smile, said: stage-driver had specified the exact spot when he was telling "'Are you ladies going to eat now, or do you prefer to wait Gregory about the hold-up until your friends come back?

He is a rather fresh fellow, the best of her. Do you know who be is? He ment. But I have an idea that I length neared the spot where the guard of the stagecoach lay be is something wor se t oo, if it were known.

J 'Tbunderation! But I s'pose I know. You're loo kin' for Young Wild who did not seem t6 know just what to do. I West. Allee h? There ain't no use of you stayin' around Then be tipped his hat to the girls and called out: here.

You couldn't do no good, anyhow. I s'pose maybe "Now, then, I'll go and see if I can find Young Wild West Young Wild West an' his pard has got on the track of the outand help him rescue bis partner from the Gulch Gang.

I feel laws, an' most likely they're miles from here jest now. That's the be rewarded with a kiss from one of you. I heartily as be did so.

That gal's got more "Hop," said Arietta, the moment the villain bad ridden away pluck in her than most men has," Zeb declared, and then, from the house, "go and saddle my horse as quickly as you shaking his bead as though he could not quite understand can.

I want to follow that fellow. Me go, too, so be. Me velly When be had disappeared around the turn, Arietta nodded smar. I am going to look around "Where are YOU gain', gal?

If it shou ld happen that I am seen by any of the following the Chinaman in the direction of the shed where 1 : vlllains they will not harm me very much, I know.

But if the horses had been tied. I call for help I want you to get to me as quickly as pos I ii,m going to lock for Young Wi ld West," was the reply.

Maybe you can't save me if I do get caught, but y ou 'Pshaw! Don't do it, gal. Stay right here That boy can find out wh e re they take me to knows putty w e ll bow to take care of himself.

He'll turn up Me undelstanrlec Missce Alietta," the ChinamRn said, as all right, an' so will his pards. Bt:t I have got it in my bead to go, and I s tePd '"Me do whattce you say.

Then Hop who had no int PAGE 9 8 YOUNG WILD WEST'S RISKY TIIDE. Hop really feared that Charlie had been captured, but he was still of the opinion that Wild and Jim we r e somewhere about, searching fer him, if they had not already found him.

He stepped over to the spot where Jhe deu l man had been lying b eside the boulder The blanket that bad coYered the body was still there, for Zeb Holcomb had not seemed desirous of taking it with him.

As the Chinaman stood there looking about and listening, h e suddenly detected a light footfall. Acting on a sudden impulse, he dropped upon the ground and, stretching himself out upon his back, he drew the blanket ov e r him.

He was not a moment too soon In doing this, for a man stepped cautiously into view, though Hop could not see him just then.

Then the footfalls of another were he,ard, and as the two came and stood within a few feet of him the prostrate Chinaman managed to get a look at them through a small hole in the blanket.

You had to be mighty careful about gittin' in with your horse, too, 'cause you seen him up that way.

But who could he have been talking to? Folks does that once in awhile. I do it myself, new an' ag'in. But I wonder why he didn't take the body with him?

He seemed to be anxious about getting it over to the Half-way House. Most likely he expected to find them two boys what come to look for their pard.

I wonder where they are now, anyhow? They'll never find our cave, that's certain. We've got Cheyenne Charlie hard and fast inside, and before night we'll have the other two.

Young Wild West is the one I want to get most of all. If we can only get the three of them, Dutch, we will have accomplished a great thing. Those fellows have done more to break up gangs like ours than any ten men in the whole United States.

Young Wild West Is only a boy, and one of his pards is, too. But they seem to know a whole lot more than a great many men.

As far as the fellow we have got ifside is concerned, he don't know a whole lot, any more than to fight like a wildcat whenever he gets the least chance to do it.

Hop remained perfectly silent. He feared almost to breathe, lest they might see the blanket rise and fall.

But they did not s eem to be looking at it very closely, and holding his cigar so the smoke might escape by the end of the boulder, he waited and watched.

Suddenly he heardJootsteps approaching. The two men started and pulled their guns. A sudden fear came over the Chinaman, for he knew right away that it must be Arietta coming back.

But he was quick to think and act. He always carried some of these, as those acquainted with the adventures of Young Wild West know quite well.

He moved his hand with the cracker until he got it close to the other end. The footsteps sounded nearer, and he noticed that the two men stepped up close to the cliff and crouched Presently ono of them started up and called out: "Pleased t0 meet you, Miss Arletta.

I told you we might meet again soon. That shows that she was only fooling when she got so hateful at the Half-way House. Well, well! I am really surprised.

I am not a member of the Gulch Gang at all. I happened to meet this man, who Is a friend of mine. He is just as anxious to locate the whereabouts or the Gulch Gang as I am.

But say, you really showed a great deal of courage in following me here. What was your obj e ct, little girl? Now, then, suppose you give me that kiss I spoke about as I rode away from the Half-way House.

There is no ne ed of resisting, for it will do you no good. I reckon you don't want much to do with her.

She would jes t as leave shoot you as eat, I honestly believe. I hate to hurt yer, but if you don't, I'll have to break your arm with a bullet. I've got yer dead to ri ghts, though you can't see me.

Unconsciously, she lowered the revolv e r and, watching his chance, Jack Duncan sprang forward and knocked it from her hand. A loud explosion sounded right behind him, and then the blanket was thrown aside and Hop Wah leaped to his f eet.

As quick as a flash, the Chinaman seized the girl by the arm and half dragge d her from the spot, r;oing toward the waiting horses CHAPTER V.

WILD AXD JBI OE'l' l: PAGE 10 YOUNG WILD WEST 'S RISKY RIDE. I hardly thin! Come on "It looks that way, Jim. I It was day li ght, too, and this made him feel that it was Finally they turne d and r ode slowly back.

When they were within abo u t fifty yards of the place where "It's only about thirty fe e t down the re, Jim," he said, with they had met the villainous gambler they halted and promptly a nod of his h e ad.

Now, then, you just let me down. Lowe r dismoun ted. If I give two pull s y ou view of any one who might pass along the trail, and they were will know that everything is all right and I have landed no J long in leadin g them to it.

But the r e is hardly any n ee d of me telling y o u t h i s, Now, then," our b,ero said, in his cool and easy way, while for it is the same old signal we have always used.

If there's an underground r e ndezvous any-where he might brace himself to lower away when the time where around here they certainly must have a fire in it somecame.

We have discovered such place s before In that way, S eeing that he was all ready, Wild promptly threw his legs Jim, s o we'll look for s om e op ening that smoke has been passov e r the edge of the fis sure ing through at some time or other.

I'm pretty sure the horses will be "Don't make any more noise than you can help, Wild," safe until we get back. Dart said.

Undoubtedly, they have captur e d It was tedious work for the most part, but the two b o ys were Charlie, and it is for us to free him as soon as possib l e active and muscular, and it did not take them a great while to Slowly andstead!

As it was, it covered quite a broad scope, going back! At first h e could not hear the l east sound, but after waiting They covered a couple of hundred yards in this way, but for nearly a minute an occa sional thud came to his ears.

The horses of the outlaws were somewhere clo s e by, for he But they were not through yet, and striking a course that was w e ll satisfied that quite a wall of rock lay between.

But quite a little light came through it, especially at one Just about half-way across the stretch they came to a rather end wide crack which extended in zig-zag fashion for perhaps Be low was a yawning chasm, looking as though it might ex twenty or thirty feet.

Young Wild West came to a halt Instantly and sniffed the The boy glance d downward, and then shook his head.

I reckon we' ve found it, Jim h e said, coolly. If "Yes,' was the reply. I'll take a bunt around. His sharp eyes soo n discovered where the smoke was in the It seemed as if the underground place was complet e ly shut habit of com ing "from, for the edges of the fissure were blackoff from the part that must be occupied by the Gulch Gang ened at eithe r side.

Dropping upon hi s knees, Wild undertook to peer downWild went o ve r to where the rope was hanging and looke d w a rd. But he could see nothing, for, no doubt, the crack ran in Then it did not take him long to see that there was an o b -anything but straight fashion.

L e t me see that rope you were He adjusted the rope about his body, and then gave the 8'g-t hou ghtful enough to bring with you. Not exa c tl y thoughtful, Wild," Dart answered, with a smile, The next minute h e was rising slowly, for Dart was qui tie and s peakin g in a low t one of voice "It ls force of habit.

You strong enough to perform the taslr. A rope edge of the rock and helped himself to get upon the solid g e!

But n eve r mind. I sup "Well, how did you make out? Try to get down there by means of the rope. I want you to lower me do wn. But I am not walled off from the one the gang is located in, I could hear g oiag d o wn wh e re all this black soot I s I don't care to b e the o ccasional stamp of horses' hoofs, but that was al l.

I mt,! I think so too, Wild. The fissure was not more than two feet in width here, but Wild was satisfied that it widened further down.

He found this to be correct, for Jim had not lowered him more than ten feet when he discovere d that he had plenty of room.

But it was not straight down, and as the rocks were very sharp in places, h e feared that the rope might be cut. However, he was willing to take the risk, and slowly but surely he ,ent on downward.

It was further than thirty feet, too, but Jim's rope was quite long enough, and when at last the boy's feet tou-:hed the ground in a very dark place he look ed upward and failed to see anything, though a faint light show e d above him, of course.

But this was due to the fact that the rift in the midst of rock and earth was irregular. Wild gave the necessary signal to let Jim know that he had landed all right, and then once more he removed the rope from his body.

Stepping a few feet along through the darkness, he came to the 10ugh side of a. Then h e paused and listened. He could hear the stamping of hoofs mor, e plainly now, but as he waited a minute or two he heard something that pleased him be.

It was the indistinct sounds rcade by voices. I'll soon find out if Charlie is here or not. If he is, I must find a means of getting him free, Thero may be a whole lot of the villains here, and if that is the case it would hardly do for me to open fire on them, for I couldn't male my escape quickly enough should they get after me too hot.

Pgh," he thought. Now, the n, how am I going to get him out oe here? There are seven determined villains to contend with, I might shoot down four or five of them b efore they had a chan ce but I won't do that.

I reckon I'd betLer go back and ge t Jim to come down. Then if we can find a way to get out of here into the gulch it will be all right.

He had no means of letting Jim know what h e wanted him to do without calling out to him, anC. E-way to the top he called out, softly: "Jim, l e t m e down again and th n yo u come on down.

I reckon it will be all r i ght, for we'll get out by the other way. I have fo End the hiding-place of the scoundrels, and have seen Charlie, They h::tvc got him bound hand and foot in a corner.

Come en down as soon as I givo tho signal to let you know that I have landed safely. He waited until Jim came down the rope, doing it with the greatest of c ase.

But it's all right. But he relied upon his coolness and good judgment to over-He coiled up the pieces of rnpe that had dropped down, as come any difficulties that might appear before him, and after he did so, and when Wild was ready, the two started to go again listening and locating the direction the sounds came around to that part of the underground place that was use d from, ho felt his way along through the darkness, being careful as a headquarters by the band of road-agents.

I reckon I can manage to creep In there and cut Charlie whose voi ces he had heard, so he resolutely stevped around loose. It strikes me that the passage over there is the way it and was soon standing where he could see obj ects quite well, to get out.

It's dark to the left, 50 I reckon we'll both try it. The voices were quite plain now, and he could distinguish If we can manage to get Chatlic out wiLhout them knowing some of the words, and knew that the men were talking in it, it wiil be all the better, for then all we'll have to do is to low tones, as if they feared they might be heard from the out-find the way out, and we can come back and bring three or side, four with us to help and soon corral the gang.

In use some little time by the villains, He crept along noisel essly, for he was 'l': ell used to that sort He counted the men there, and found there were seven of of thing.

But he knew he would surely make more or less nofse In Charlie was reclining, his back against a r ock and his eyes doing it, and before he could get through the villains would fl.

Jim waited, and managed to give an encouraging nod to the relearnd prisoner. N'ot caring to risk speaking, W! Id shook his head and motioued that they must get out.

Of course, the scout knew the way, and he promptly gave an answering nod. Then he got upon his bands and knees and crawled around, being compel!

But once around an angle of rock, and there was the passage which led, crookedly, to the outside. But the game was more exciting than ever, jus' t now, and the two spectators were just making a wager as to the outcome.

The three passed en, and a few seconds later were in the passage. Once there, Charl! Out through the narrow passage all three went, then, and as they reached the outside and saw the bright sunlight, foey nodded to each other and then gripped hands.

He's all right, Charlie. We took care of him, and he is but a short distance away, with ours. What are you goln' to do now, Wild?

We'll get the horses first and then we'll see what we'll do. Tbey were not long in reaching the spot where the horses had been left.

They were there and they found them all right. Just as they mounted, the clatter of hoofs sounded further down the gulch.

It's the opposite direction. I reckon we'll ride on and see who It is. Before they had gone a distance of a hundred feet a horseman appeared, riding straight toward them.

He appeared to be a cowboy, and was coming along at an easy lope. When he saw the three approaching him he waved his hand and called out: 'Hello, strangers!

Which way are you headin'? We have business the other way," Wlld answered. I'm goin' to take a short cut, an' not bother goin' on through the blamed old gulch.

I sartinly do. I kin cut off three-quarters of a mlle, an' that' s a whole lot, 'cause the distance ain't very great, any-how.

That's so. I reckon w e 'll go with you, if you don't object. I reckon I never object to anything like that. You two boys an' your pard there seems to be all right.

I left Hard Bottom early this mornin', an' I'm dead broke. That's why I want to git to the Half-way House, 'cause I know Dan Gregory will let me have what I want to eat, an' give me a five-dollar bill till pay-day comes.

Come on, if you're goin' by the short way. You turn right here. But when Young Wild West and hls partners looked at the ground and saw the prints of horses' hoofs they knew pretty well that It must go further than that, since horsemen certainly had been in the habit of passing that way.

The cowboy, for such he was, rode on, talking away at a great rate about the llig time he had experienced in Hard Bottom the night before.

I only hau forty-two dollars when I started in to buck the tiger over there," he said. Then I commenced to lose. Like every body else what fools wllh a faro lay-out, I kept on until I went dead broke.

But It's all right. I'll go back ag'in when I git paid next month. I'm game, I am. Wild knew there was no use in trying to give him advice, for such men rarely take It.

He found the cowboy's name was Hecker, and he judged him to be a pretty good fellow beyond the fact that he was a confirmed gambler.

The short cut proved to be all rlght, for It brought them out within a couple of hundred yards of the rear of the Half-way House. None of us has had dinner yet.

Arietta and Hop left here not mere than ten minutes ago. They went to look for you. What did she want to do tl::at for?

I suppose she got it in her head that something was wrong, and she's simply started off, thinking she might be of some assistance.

Since I have waited so long, I think I can stick it out until a little later for my dinner. Jim cried, as he turned to his horse and quickly mounted again.

It don't make no difference how hungry I am, we've got to go an' see where Arietta an' Hop is. If they started out after that sheakin' coyote, the chances are they'll run into trouble.

Most likely he"s goin' straight off to the cave, where I was layln' tied hand an foot for quite a little while. But Wild an' Jim got me all right, an' here I am.

Don't you be afraid, 'cause they ain't gain' to git me ag'in. We'll fix 'em this time, an' don't you forgit it. Wild turned to the cowboy who had ridden to the Half-way House with him, and, with a nod, said: "Hecker, i: reckon if you take a notion you can r-ide out to the gulch after you have had your dinner.

You might help a little. Just get Gregory and his man to come, too. I reckon the stage-driver ls somewhere around. If you tell him about it he'll certainly wa1,1t to come and lend his assistance.

I think that with two or thre of you we'll be able to corral the Gulch Gang. But go ahead and get something to eat.

You have been without your breakfast and dinner long enough. You'll find us somewhere, I think. He was really quite anxious about his sweetheart and the Chinaman.

He quickly mounted Spitfire, and then rode away with Charlie and Jim, who had already started. Along the trail they rode at a smashing clip, and not until PAGE 13 12 YOUNG WILD WEST'S RISKY RIDE.

Then they gradually drew down to a walk, and in this way went on until they thought ttiey were close enough to go wi t h the horses.

Dismounting, they left the animals standing and made their way, cautiously, ahead, eac h holding a revolver in readiness In case any of the villains should suddenly appear.

Not the least sign of any one couid they s ee nor cou ld they hear a sound that would indicate that there was any one wit :lin a mile of the place.

Reaching the big boulder near which the body of the stagecoach gi. It was in a confused heap, and was torn and blackened som ewhat.

Sorter lool,s as t hou gh it was on fire," Charlie observed "'Probabl y it was. But we won't try to find out anything about it just now We have got to look for Arietta and Hop.

But they could not find the girl and the Chinaman, or their horses, either. There were so many hoof-prints on the trail that It was impossible to tell if they had gone past the place or not.

Finally Wild decided to go on a little fltl'ther, for it occurred to him that Arietta might have proceeded on, since he knew pretty well that the Gulch Gang could easily have missed seeing her and the Chinaman ride p ast, for they were quite a distance back under the grom1d.

Going back to their horses, the three mounted and then rod e along the trail untl! When they had made an examination of the ground they flecame convinced that the missing two bad not gone in that direction, since the only fresh hoof-prints were those made by the cowboy's horse, and they were leading that way.

It is too bad, but I can't help feeling that way 'Let's go an' git 'em, then, Wild. There ain't no use In wattin' about I t. The quicker we do it the sooner we'll have a chance to git somethin' to eat," the scout said, resolutely.

All right, come on. Just then they beard the sounds made by horses coming through the narrow place they bad used for a short cut to r each the Half-way House when they accompanied the cowboy.

Young Wild West stood by his horse, a revolver in his hand, and waited, while neither Charlie nor Jim said a word. The next moment who should appear but Hop Wah.

He was riding his own horse and leading Arietta's, and appeared to be quite disturbed over something. Missee Alietta gittee ketchee by um bad Mell ca n men.

THE EXPLOSIO IN TIIE CAl"E. Hop Wah cer. When he seized the girl by the arm to l ead her out of the s moke toward the horses, he surely felt that he was going to get her away from them.

But, unfortunately, he ran right into a rock that happened to be in the way and was forced to let go of her to escape falling to the ground.

Arietta gave an involuntary cry, and then DutC'h Perry, the leader of the gang, sprang forward and caught her by the arm. I clon't know what i n thunder it was that made that explosion, but, j est the same, you ain't goin' to git away.

Come back here. She must have had a stick of dynamite somewhere an' she chucked it on a rock. She'll tell all about it later on.

But let's git her Inside the cave. That's the thing to do now. But he bad no sooner reached the animals than he realize d his mistake.

He should have remained there and seen where the villains took the girl. But It was too late now, though he did creep back and look around.

But wh e n h e got there, there was no one to be seen. There lay the blanket In a h eap, just as he had thrown it as the hig cracker exploded.

It was ,smok ing, for the explosion bad set it on fire in a few places. But Hop did not care what happened to the blanket, so he soon left it and then once more went back to the horses.

Me no wantee go back now, so be Maybe ley gottee Misler Wild and his partners. Velly muchee bad. Me-no likee. But he had marked well the spot where he had last seen the two villains and the girl, and thinking it best to go on past It with the ho rses, he did so, going slowly so as to net make any unnecessary noise.

He continued on until he came to the narrow cut that had been used by our hero and his partners when they went with the cowboy to the Half-way House.

Hop did not know it was a short cut to the place. He simply toolc it for a good hiding-place for the horses, so he led them In for a few yards, and then sat down to study the situation again.

The more be thought about it the more worried he beca21e. Everything pointed to the fact that Wild and his partners had fallen Into the hands of the Gulch Gang, and that being the case, things were In a desperate strait.

Luckily, none of the villains happened to be on the watch just then, for If they bad been they might easily have taken hlm by surprise and made him a prisoner.

Finally, Hop decided upon doi'ng exactly what Wild and Jim bad done when they found themselves completely balked.

He started to climb up to the top of the cliff. When he finally got there he rested long enough to regain his breath, and then crept to the edge and looked over.

It happened just-then that one of tne gang was outsicfe, lookIng up and down the trail. Hop saw him and was much plea sed when he did.

The villain soon satisfied himself that there was no one about, and then he turned and walke d back to the face of the cliff and quickly disappeared.

Marking the spot well in his mind, Hop started to get down again, for he now felt that he had found where Arietta had been taken.

Instead of d escending to the trail he found that he C'Oulcl ge t around to the spot where ho had left the hor ses and h' ac cordingly went that way.

It was a rocky s lope he had to f! Bnt tbe first thing he did was to tell the what had hap pened. Me tly velly hard to stoppee, I ness and soon reached the passage that ended in that part o f but me do lat.

Velly bad," and he shook his head, sadly. I the underground place that was occupied as a headquarters b y "Go on and tell us all about it, and be quick about it.

Don't 1 the v! Well, it ls not necessary for you to tell it, because we But otherwise she seemed to be perfectly herself.

We were all in there. Charlie was a prisoner in the cave and Jim and I have five minutes to make up your mind. The time is u p went in and got him out without the villains knowing it.

If Now, what's your answer? Len you gittee Missee Ali et ta velly muchee quickee. You come with me and fetch a rope with you.

Tack Duncan. He's gone an' fe ll call it. Charlie, you ride back along the trail and meet those! If close to the entrance of the cave, but be careful not to show you don't agree to marry him we're goin' to chuck you over yourself.

Wild was very much pleased to note that the girl had not "Hop and I w,lll get down into the cave, and if you hear an been bound. Evidently, the villains thought it not necessary, because she All right, Wild," Charlie answered, while Jim gave a nod.

The Swedish king did not murder them, but sent them far away into Hungary, where, beyond the reach of the cruel Dane, they were kindly treated.

There were two other heirs to the English throne. Ethel- red himself was dead, but had left two sons at the court of his Norman brother-in-law. Canute could not murder these child- ren, but he entered into treaty with their uncle, Duke Riohard, and proposed to make their mother a second time queen of England.

And Emma, the heartless " Flower of Normandy," for the glory of a throne, forgot the love and care she owed her children, and became the wife of this strange Danish king, the cruel enemy of her Saxon husband and their sons.

When Canute had disposed of all his enemies, he became a milder and a better king, and sought to win the favor of his subjects.

He gathered round him the minstrels and gleemen, and delighted in old songs and ballads, and even made verses himself for the people. He made good laws for his kingdom, and becoming a Christian, founded churches and monasteries.

One day, disgusted with the flatteries of his courtiers, he caused his throne to be placed on the sea-shore, when the tide was coming in.

Then, as the waves rolled on with their resistless might, he commanded them to retire, " nor presume to wet the edge of his robe. But though this heartless woman forgot the claims of her Saxon first-born at the court of Normandy, there were those in England who were not unmindful of his rights.

During the reigns of the Danish monarchs, there was a strong Saxon party in England, headed by Godwin, the " Great Earl," as he was called, and his six stalwart sons.

He had been brought up in another land ; he had learned a foreign language, and could scarcely speak the Saxon tongue ; he loved the ways and manners of those among whom he had lived ; he was a stranger in his own kingdom.

In his reign, the coming event of the great Norman conquest cast a broad shadow over the land. Normans filled the English court.

Edward was a most pious king, according to the piety of those days, and won the name of Edward " the Confessor," or " the Saint. Even the archbishopric of Canterbury was given to a foreign pielate.

Norman-French was the language spoken at court and in the halls of justice, and those who sought the royal favor, laid aside their homely Saxon tongue, and studied the language of the strangers.

The simple mark of the cross as the royal signature was abandoned, and in its place was used " the great seal.

So completely had the court of England become Norman, that when, in the year , William, the young duke of that country, came over to pay Edward a visit, he found himself so surrounded by the people and the customs of his own duchy, that he could scarcely realize that he had crossed the Channel.

All these things displeased much the Great Earl Godwin and the Saxon party. On the death of Godwin, his son Harold succeeded to his earldom and power, and rose to even a higher place in the affections of the people.

King Edward the Con- fessor had no children, and his life was drawing to its close. SNGLAND UNDER THE DANES. This prince came to England, but shortly after his arrival, died, leaving a son so young and incapable, that no one thought of him as the future king.

The hearts of the English clustered around Earl Harold. The Norman favorites thought of their own duke. When William of Normandy visited England, and saw around him so much that reminded him of his own duchy, the hope, no doubt, arose in his mind, that one day the Saxon court might become Norman, and he the Norman king of England.

William said, moreover, that when he and Edward were boys together in Normandy, the latter had promised, should he ever become king of England, to leave the crown, at his death, to his Norman playfellow.

Harold returned to England. He felt that, should the people make him king, no oath forced from him by the Norman William, should induce him to betray his country to a stranger.

On the eve of the Festival of the Epiphany, in the year , King Edward the Confessor died. He had rebuilt Westminster Abbey from its foundations, and with great solemnity and pomp, his remains were interred in a beautiful tomb within the sacred walls of the newly-finished edifice.

Who were the Normans? RelaU some of his acts. CHAPTER VI. THE LAST OF THE SAXON KINGS. WILLIAM THE NORMAlf PREPARKS TO INVADE ENGLAND — HAROLD REPELS THE INVASION OF T0STI6 — THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS.

The Saxon chroniclers assert that Edward, before his death, named Harold, the son of Earl Godwin, as his suc- cessor. Be this as it may, the crown was placed upon the brow of the Saxon earl a few hours only after the saint-king had been laid in his tomb.

William, the Norman duke, was hunting in his park, near the royal city of Rouen, when the tidings of Edward's death and Harold's coronation reached him.

Casting aside his bow and arrows, he hastened in silence to his palace. So dreadfully agitated did he seem, that for a time none dared approach or speak with him.

At length a favorite courtier arrived at the palace, and ventured to ask the duke the cause of his uneasiness. In a large assembly which was held in one of the Norman towns, Fitz- Osborn, a staunch friend of William's, tried to persuade the people to yield to his wishes.

When the people heard this false message, the council hall rang with cries of " No! William, hiding his wrath, took the chief members of the assembly, one by one, and spoke to them in such persuasive words of the great glory and wealth which would be gained by this expedition, that their prejudices were overcome, and as each one gave his own consent, he used his influence to win over others.

By degrees all opposition was overcome, and the wily William had the written promise of his people's aid. Then the Norman duke published his ban of war in other countries, and adventurers from all parts flocked to his stand- ard.

Peter; and a letter giving him per- mission to conquer England, on condition that he should hold it in subjection to the Holy See.

To this letter was affixed a round leaden seal, called in Latin, " bulla," and from this has come the name of "bull," as applied to pontifical decrees bearing this seal.

The sound of preparation was heard through all the Norman land. Smiths, armorers, and ship-builders wrought incessantly, and by midsummer a fleet of six hundred large vessels, and many smaller transports, had assembled on the coast of Normandy.

When William had overcome all human obstacles to his plans, then arose those over which no mortal has control. The winds were contrary, and for more than a morfth kept William's fleet idle on the shores of his own duchy.

Idleness bred discontent. The soldiers and sailors began to say, " He is mad I that man is very mad who seeks to take possession of another's country!

God is angry at such designs, and this He shows now, by refusing us a fair wind. Valery a famous French saipt carried in procession through the camp on the sea-shore.

Prayers were made to the saint, and the soldiers, believing in his intercession, grew more hopeful. The next day the wind became favorable, and the Norman fleet sailed for the English coast.

From Duke William's vessel, the gift of his wife the Countess Matilda , floated the pope's consecrated banner, surmounted by a cross.

The silken sails were of many bright colors, parts of the ship were gilt, and the Three Lions of Normandy, the duke's arms, were em- blazoned in many places.

On the prow was the figure of a child, holding a drawn bow, the arrow pointing, with the ship's head, towards the English coast.

On the 28th September, , this formidable fleet cast anchor off the shores of Sussex. As William stepped on shore, he fell, but recovering himself instantly, prevented the superstitious fears of his army, by crying out, showing them a handful of English sand, " See, I have taken possession of the land by my hands, and as far as it extends it is mine, — it is yours.

Let us leave them here, and turn to the preparations which King Harold was making to resist this great army. Before William began to make ready for the invasion of England, he THE LAST OP THE SAXON KINGS.

Harold simply replied : " It is true that I made an oath to William, but I made it under the influence of force; I promised that which belongs not to me, and engaged to do what I never could do ; for my royalty is not mine, nor can I dispose of it without the consent of my country.

William was not his only enemy. A treacherous brother, named Tostig, who had been banished from England, now sought revenge.

Aided by William the Norman, and accompanied by Harold Hardrada, a king of Norway, he landed, September , in the neighborhood of York.

Hardrada was the last of that race of Vikingirs, who had for so many centuries been the terror of England. To encounter this enemy. King Harold marched northward, leaving the southern coast, where the storm of war was so soon to burst, exposed to all its fury.

Before the battle, which was fought at Stamford Bridge, the English king sent to Tostig, ofiering him peace, friendship, and restoration to his ancient honors.

When the Northmen tell the story of this day, they shall never say that Earl Tostig forsook King Hardrada, the son of Sigurd. He and I have one mind, and one resolve, and that is, either to die in battle, or to possess all England.

Both were slain on the battle-field, and their army was driven from the land. Scarcely had Harold gained this victory, when news came that William, duke of Normandy, had landed in England.

He turned with his army southward. And now, as the year drew near its close, the great battle was to be fought, which should decide whether the Norman duke or the Saxon earl should wear the crown of England.

Battle Abbey afterwards arose to commemorate this figbt. Around it gathered brave English hearts. On Saturday, the 14th October, the action began.

The Normans advanced, singing the war-songs of ancient heroes, and raising their battle-cry, " Our Lady! Our Lady! When the sun went down, the brave Harold had fallen, and the banner of Duke William, "the Three Lions of Normandy," floated triumphant over the bloody field of victory.

The battle of Hastings had been fought, and the Norman conquest was begun. Describe the vessel in which William embarked.

CONDITION OF ENGLAND UNDER THE SAXONS. CONDITION OP ENGLAND UNDER THE SAXONS. RELIGION— LITER1. TUBE — MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. Let us now glance at the condition of the Saxon people at the time of the Norman conquest.

First, as regards religion : the pure light of Christianity had become dim by the corrupt practices of an age of superstition.

Fasting and penance, or the infliction of suffering on the body, was too often inculcated in the place of that scriptural repentance which leads to godly sorrow for sin and amendment of life.

The building of a church or monastery, or a pilgrimage to Eome, atoned, it was believed, for the darkest crimes.

Thus the wicked Elfrida, the mother of King Ethelred the Unready, in her old age, founded churches and monasteries, to make amends for the sins of her former life.

Thus, too, Canute, the Dane king, went on a pilgrimage to Rome, because his soul was troubled with remorse for the blood wh ch he had shed, and the crimes which he had committed.

Robbing the English people of their money to bestow in alms on foreign churches, with pilgrim's wallet and staff, he found his way to Italy.

The treasures he brought back with him were, the bones of dead saints, and " holy relics," — such as the arm of St.

Augusfine, for which he had paid one hundred talents of gold, and the same amount of silver. The monks pretended to work mira- cles.

The people were taught to call upon the saints, for aid and intercession. The word of God, whose entrance giveth light, was shut up from the laity in a foreign tongue.

Dunstan, the abbot of Glastonbury afterwards Primate of England , was, both in his accomplishments and the means by which he gained his reputation for sanctity, a fair specimen of the monk of this age.

He was a fine musician, a painter, 44 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He gained the character of a saint by living in a cell so small that he could not lie down in it at full length, and by subsisting on the coarsest and most meagre fare.

When, by these means, combined with his natural talents for command, he had risen to power and influence, he proclaimed himself a reformer of the church.

This reforma- tion consisted in obliging those priests who were married secular clergy they were called to put away their wives, abandon their families, and go to live in monasteries, like the monks or regulars.

The quarrel between these two parties was long and bitter. Gradually, the monks prevailed, but it was not until after the twelfth century, that celibacy became the general practice of the Church.

In those dark times of superstition, it is pleasant to dwell upon a spot illuminated by the pure light of the gospel.

Such seems to have been the little rocky island of lona, on the western coast of Scotland. There, in the sixth century, St. Columba, an Irish monk, founded a monastery, and estab- lished a little colony of Christians.

There they lived, owning no subjection to the Church of Rome, and only preaching " such works of charity and piety as they could learn from Holy Scriptures.

Although monasteries and convents were in many instances places where idle and even wicked lives were led, yet were they very frequently sanctuaries for the oppressed, and the only refuge in those rude times for the weak and defenceless.

Nor must we forget that to the life-long labor of many a monk, we owe the books which have come down to our times. Every monastery had its writing-room, and there copies of ancient works were transcribed on sheets of vellum or parchment.

Paper was not then invented, and as parchment was costly, the previous writing was sometimes effaced to make room for the new.

Many a time, in this way, some old and precious manuscript may have been erased, to give place to lives of CONDITION OP ENGLAND UNDER THE SAXONS.

Often the long lifetime of a monk would be spent in copying and illuminating a single book. These copies and illuminations were very beautiful.

We hear of the gospels impressed in silver letters upon violet-colored parchment, and. They were as valuable, and were looked after with as much care, as a farm would be in our days, and the fortune of a king could scarcely buy as much reading as may now be found in a child's library.

The monasteries were the schools of those days. There Latin and Greek were taught, as well as astronomy and theol- ogy.

In painting, music, sculpture, and architecture, the monks were well skilled. Westminster Abbey rose in the days of Edward the Confessor.

To the building of this mag- nificent structure, which was the pride of his heart, the Saint- king devoted a tenth of his revenue ; but he scarcely lived to see it completed, and was the first of that long line of English monarchs who have been laid to rest within its walls.

At Christmas, at Easter, and at Whitsuntide, the Saxon kings summoned the great council of the nation. It was called the Witenagemot. To this, years after, succeeded the parliament of England.

In the Witenagemot were gathered the clergy and nobles of the kingdom, greater or less, whether Dane or Saxon ; the kings and chiefs of tribes, who paid tri- bute to the crown, were there also ; last, but not least, the ccorls, the people, had their representatives in the magistrates of the burghs or towns.

In the Witan as the name is often abbreviated , but more frequently in lesser courts, the people were tried who were accused of crimes. If the criminal could procure a certain number of friends, of a stated amount of property, to swear with him to his innocence, he was acquitted.

If he could not find such witnesses, he committed his cause to "the appeal to heaven," or "trial by ordeal," as it was called. This consisted in plunging his arm into boiling water, holding 46 HI8T0RT OF XNOLAIfD.

If, at the end of three days, no sign of injury was ' found upon the criminal, he was declared innocent. Very likely those who survived these ordeals had discovered some means of preparing their bodies, so that they should not feel the heat of the iron or the water.

The son of Duncan -fled to the English coast, and was " re- ceived of the most pious Edward" with much favor.

He subsequently married Margaret, a granddaughter of Edmund Ironsides. The Saxons cared much more for good living than for fine houses.

Their dwellings were made of wood. They had no chimneys, the smoke being allowed to escape through a hole in the roof.

In the windows of the rich, glass had taken the place of the lattice work, or linen blind. The floors were car- peted with rushes.

The walls were hung with tapestry, or silken curtains, richly embroidered in needlework of gold or colored thread.

In this art, the women of that age excelled. We hear of an embroidered curtain presented by an English lady to a church, on which was wrought a representation of the siege of Troy.

On the famous roll, known as the Bayeux Tapestry, is wrought, in woollen threads of various colors, a complete picture representation of the Norman conquest.

This roll is of linen, twenty inches in breadth and two hun- dred and fourteen feet in length. It is still kept in the town house of Bayeux.

Stools, Trenches, and settles were used, instead of diairs. These were made, as were also the tables, of wood curiously carved. The English silversmiths were especially famous for their delicate workmanship, and on the tables of the rich were found cups, vases, and dishes of gold and silver, beautifully wrought..

The comiBon people used dishes of wood, horn, and bone. Glass vessels were not commonly found, and their place was supplied by drinking-horns, rimmed and ornamented with silver.

The Saxons were extravagant eaters. Four meals a day was the allowance of all who could afford it. They became, after their connection with the Danes, immoderate drinkers too.

So prevalent had this vice become in the days of King Edgar, that he caused drinking-horns to be made with knobs of brass at certain distances from each other, and commanded that no guest should be compelled, at one draught, to drink more than from one knob to the next.

The tables were covered with cloths so large, that they could be spread over the knees of the guests, and used as napkins. The meats were served on small spits, by kneeling attendants.

At festal meals the harp was handed from guest to guest, each being expected to con- tribute a song or a strain for the general entertainment. The dress of the Anglo-Saxon women consisted of a linen tunic, fitting close at the throat, having tight sleeves, and richly embroidered hems and borders.

A loose garment, with flowing sleeves, was frequently thrown over the tunic. On the head, and enveloping the neck, was worn a veil of linen or silk.

Men wore tunics of linen or woollen, descending to the knees, and fastened by a belt at the waist. These garments, too, had fine borders.

Over this was worn a cloak, fastened by a ring or brooch on the shoulder. The tunics of the lower classes were often made of hide. On the legs were worn linen or woollen stockings, crossed with strips of cloth, linen, or leather.

Over the dress was often worn chains and crosses, and the belts, frequently of gold and silver, were studded with jewels.

The amusements of the Saxons were of an exciting nature. The thanes, or nobles, delighted in hunting and hawking, whilst the ceorl enjoyed bear-baiting, the feats of the tumbler and the juggler, and the song of the gleeman and minstrel.

More quiet spirits delighted in games, such as chess, dice, and backgammon. Tall crosses and images of saints marked the intersection of the ways, which custom may yet be traced in the names of the present thoroughfares Rood-Lane and Lady-Lane.

Portions of the metropolis now so populous, were then the humble villages of Southwark, Charing, Lam- beth, St. London was not then the capital of England.

Winchester was the favorite city of the Saxon monarchs, but they held court as they listed, in various places of the realm. In the Easter of , King Edward the Confessor wore his croVn in the little village of Windshore, now Windsor.

Through the same fair landscape still. Of whom was the great council of the realm composed? Describe the houses and furniture of the Saxons.

S 50 BISTORT OV ENGLAND. PART m. THE NORMAN CONQUEST. For prayers, like arrows, glance aside, against the Norman steel. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.

The battle of Hastings was fought in October. At length, on Christmas day of the year , the Conqueror stood in Westminster Abbey. A traij;i of Norman nobles and priests were with him.

Some English, too, were there. First, a Norman bishop asked William's followers whether they would have their duke crowned kins: of England : then Aldred, the ?.

Shouts of applause arose in answer to both these questions. The Conqueror's horsemen, outside of the Abbey, mistook them for cries of alarm from their Norman friends within.

In hasty revenge they set fire to the English houses. Amid the confusion which followed, William and the arch- bishop were left trembling and almost alone before the altar.

William had promised more than he could perform. A large army of nobles, soldiers, priests, and monks had come with the Norman duke to England.

He had told them that, if they would help him to conquer the country, lands, abbeys, churches, and treasures should be theirs. These greedy Norman followers were not likely to Jet William forget his promises, and how could he keep them, without making beg- gars and outcasts of his English subjects?

One man alone, of all that Norman host, was found honest enough to tell his master that, " he desired not property seized and stolen from other men ; that he should go back to Normandy, there to enjoy his humble but rightful heritage, and rest content with his own lot, without coveting the wealth of others.

Saxon England was not to become the prey of the Norman conqueror, until after a long and hard struggle. When Wil- liam was crowned king, his dominions did not extend as far north as the city of Oxford, nor as far west as that of Exeter.

In T, William visited his duchy of Normandy. Bishop Odo, so oppressed the English, that they rose against the Normans.

William came back, and then began what may be called the real conquest of England. It was a contest of seven years' duration.

Norman castles, manned with knights and soldiers, arose all over the country : the fortresses, the garrisons, the houses of Saxon lords, were given to Normans : the churches, the monasteries, and the abbeys were filled with Norman priests.

Numbers of English wandered away to foreign lands; many in later days became crusaders, and very many fled as outlaws to the woods and forests.

William marched into Northumbria, and after a bloody victory, entered the city of York with fire and sword, and left there a well-garrisoned citadel.

In less than a year the English, aided by Scotch and Danes, laid siege to York. The citadel was strong, and for seven days the Norman garrison held out.

On the eighth day they set the town on fire j the famous and beautiftil York Minsty, with its library, was burned : three thousand Normans were killed, and the English army entered the ruined city.

William was in one of his hunting fiorests, when news of this victory reached him. All his wicked passions were aroused : he swore a feaHul oath, that he would ravage the Danelagh with fire and sword, and utterly destroy the North- umbrian people.

He kept this wicked vow. Fire, slaughter, and desolation made a vast wilderness there, which continues to this day. The miseries of the wretched Saxons who escaped the fire and sword were extreme.

Many starved to death; some wandered into Scotland; others joined the outlaws of the forests ; and many, in utter despair, sold themselves, their wives, and children, as slaves to the Con- queror's soldiers.

In this region stood the old and greatly revered English abbeys of Ely, Thorney, Peterborough, and Croyland. At length treachery WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.

The monks of Ely, weary of long privations; guided William's men across the marshes to Hereward's camp of reftige. The usual scenes followed : — cruel murder, robbery, and outlawry.

Hereward escaped, and, with a few friends, for a time kept up the struggle. At last, seeing its hopelessness, he took the oath of allegiance to William.

The Norman Conquest was finished ; at least as far as holding possession of the land was concerned. The country was divided among William's Norman followers.

To one lord was given twenty-eight villages. Earl Percy had eighty manors and more bestowed on him. On the banks of the Swale, in Yorkshire, a Norman chief built the castle, and founded the town of Richmond.

Another, Gilbert de Lacy, erected the strong castle of Pontefract. New abbeys and churches were founded, and the old ones were given to foreign churchmen.

Norman prelates and priests were as grasping and cruel as Norman knights and soldiers. When the Conqueror died, but one Saxon bishop held his place in the English Church.

This was Wulfetan, bishop of Worcester. He was an old man when summoned to Westminster Abbey, before a meeting of Norman priests.

They told him he must give up his bishopric, not because he was an unfaithful pastor, but because he could not speak the French language.

This strangely-solemn resignation the Normans dared not accept, and, until his death, Wulfstan remained bishop of Worcester.

Although "William had divided England among his Norman 54 IIISTUHV UP ENGLAND. While he was absent in his duchy of Normandy, the Norman nobles, whom he had left in England, aided by some of the English, entered into a conspiracy.

William had left Laufranc, archbishop of Canter- bury, to govern in his absence. This prelate, although more than ninety years old, acted with such vigor, that the rebellion was put down before William had recrossed the Channel.

The English who had engaged in it were more severely punished than the Normans. The fate of Waltheof, son of the brave Earl Siward, is a striking instance of this.

He had married a niece of the Conqueror, and was one of the few Saxon thanes on whom had been bestowed power and estates.

The Norman barons who plotted against William sought to engage Waltheof in their conspiracy, but the clear-headed Saxon earl, foreseeing the hopelessness of the rebellion, would take no part in it.

All that the conspirators could obtain from him was an oath of. The wicked Judith thus sacrificed her husband in the hope that on becoming a widow she might marry a Norman nobleman of whom she was enamored.

Hated and shunned by all, " the infamous Judith," as nearly all the chroniclers call her, wandered from place to place, seeking to hide her shame and misery in the most secluded corners of the land.

He had three sons : Robert, a reckless, extravagant youth, a great favorite with his mother, Matilda ; William, surnamed Rufus, or Red, from the color of his hair; and Henry, called Beauclerc, or Fine Scholar.

Robert, now that his father had become king of England, demanded the duchy of Normandy, WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. In spite of all Matilda's efforts to make peace between them, this war lasted with but little intermission throughout "William's reign.

The Conqueror met his death in a fearful manner. He was "warring against the king oF France, and, with his accustomed cruelty, rode with fire and sword through one of the beautiful provinces of that country.

It was harvest time: the ripe grapes hung in rich clusters on the vine, and the yellow grain waved its golden sheaves; but nought save revenge moved the heart of William.

He made his cavalry trample down the grain-fields, and ordered his soldiers to root up the vines, and to cut down the trees.

The city of Mantes he laid in ashes. As he rode into the burning town, his horse, stepping on the hot embers, plunged, throwing William on the pommel of the saddle, and giving him a severe bruise.

The injury was mortal. Gervas, near his ducal city of Rouen, the Conqueror passed the few weeks of life which remained. Eemorse at last visited the heart of the dying man.

He gave money to rebuild the ruins of Mantes. Of his sons, Robert Was wandering among foreign princes, and only William Rufus and Henry were near the death-bed of their father, anxiously waiting to hear his last will.

To KoBert he left the duchy of Normandy : of the English crown, he declared it was not his to bequeath, since he gained it not by inheritance, but by the sword.

He expressed, however, a wish that William Rufos might wear it. No sooner had the sons heard these words, than, leaving 66 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Nobles and knights took horse and went their ways to look after their own interests ; the very menials, after robbing the chamber of everything valuable, fled, leaving the dead body of the monarch lying on the bare floor.

Thus it lay for three hours. At length the archbishop of Rouen ordered that the body should be taken to Caen, and buried in a church which William had founded there.

When the remains reached Caen, a procession was formed to convey them to the church of St. But a fire breaking out in the town, the body was left to the care of a few monks, whilst the rest of the fxmeral train ran to put out the flames.

At last the church was reached. Abbots and monks assembled. I reclaim it as my right ; and in the name of God I forbid you to bury him here, or cover him with my glebe.

J WILLIAM RUPUS. Where and by whom was the last stand made for fireedom? Mention the troubles which embittered the cloBe of William's life.

CHAPTER IX. WILLIAM RUFUS. THB CROWN niSPITTEn— TBEATXBNT OF THE SAXON RACE — THE KINQ'S DEATH. With all speed he hurried to Winchester, seized the royal treasures, and persuaded Lanfranc, the aged archhishop, to place the crown on his brow.

Many of the Normans who held lands both in England and Normandy, desired that one lord should rule both countries ; and as they hated William Rufus, they persuaded Robert his elder brother to claim the English crown, and gave him the aid of their arms.

The contest between the two brothers con- 68 HISTOBT or ENGLAND. At length, in the year , Robert, anxious to take part in the crusadeSi mortgaged his duchy to William for three or five years, receiv- ing in return the sum of ten thousand marks, and departed for the Holy Land.

The hand of injustice fell heavily upon the Saxon church. Under the coat of mail, or under the cowl, he was ever the foreign conqueror — insolent, harsh, and grasping.

But now the Norman lord was a harsh master. Shut up in his castle with gates closed and barred, he came in contact with the Saxon only to rob or to injure him.

These days came to an end. The evening of the 1st of August, in the year , the Bed King spent at Malwood Keep, a hunting lodge in the New Forest.

He waited for the dawn of day, to begin anew the pleasures of the chase. In the morning an archer presented the king six new arrows.

Praising their beauty, William gave two to his friend. After a sumptuous banquet the chase began. The party, among whom was Henry, the brother of the king, were scattered through the wide forest, but Wil- liam and his friend Sir Walter hunted together.

As the sun was setting, a hart came bounding by, between the king and CHANGES EFFECTED BY THE CONQUEST.

The king drew his bow, but the string broke. Walter — shoot! The arrow sped from Sir Walter's bow, but turned aside by glancing against a tree, it lodged, not in the side of the deer, but in the heart of the king.

Sir Walter took horse, escaped to France, and afterwards went on a crusade. The body of William Rufus was found later in the Tradition says that on the spot where the dead king's body lay had once stood an Anglo-Saxon church.

CHAPTER X. CHANGES EFFECTED BY THE CONQUEST. THI rSTTDAL SYSTEM — NEW FOREST — DOOMSOAT BOOK — THE CRTJSADBS.

Before entering upon another century, it may be well to learn something of the change in the social condition of the people of England, which was made by the Norman conquest.

When a great chief, such as was William of Normandy, conquered a country or province, he considered himself the owner of it. A portion of the lands he kept for himself, the rest he divided among his barons, who promised in return to follow him to battle whenever he should call upon them for such service.

The barons in their turn divided these lands among their followers in the same manner, and on the same terms.

Such lands were called fiefs ; those who gave them were cdled feudal lords, and those who held them were named 60 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. This hoIcLing of land for military service, instead of buying or paying rent for it, is called the Feudal System, and was introduced by William the Conqueror into England.

The feudatory relations of Hugh, first Earl of Chester, may be cited in illustration of this system.

When the province, of which the old Roman city of Chester was the staronghold, had been conquered, William bestowed it upon a follower, who, because he bore on his shield the figure of a wolf's head, was called Hugh Lupus, or " the Wolf.

The latter came, bringing no less than five of his brothers with him. Hugh conferred upon him the title of constable and hereditary marshal. He gave him the town of Halton ; granted him a liberal share in the spoils which should be taken in battle ; the privileges of jurisdiction over a large district, and the fines thereof; the right of pre-emption or first purchase in the Chester market over all comers thereto, save the servants of the earl ; the highway and street tolls at the fairs held in Chester ; the market dues of his district of Halton, and the liberty of selling free of taxation every species of merchandise, excepting horses and salt.

In return for all this, Lenoir engaged for himself and his heirs to march with their retainers at the head of the earFs armies in going forth to battle, and in returning to bring up the rear.

Lenoir, in his turn, bestowed lands and privileges, with the title of seneschal, upon his next brother, for service and homage similar to that which he himself rendered to the earl.

On the second, third, and fourth brothers, the constable bestowed lands and manors in proportion, and the fifth, who was a priest, received the gift of a church.

Those who had been nobles among the Saxons now became vassals to the Norman lords. At the time of the Conqueror's death there was scarcely a native Englishmen in the land who held so high a title as earl or OHANGES EITSOTED BT THE CONQUEST.

The most numerous class in the nation were those called by the Saxons, ceorU, and by the Normans, villains. They belonged to the estate of the lord, and could neither remove from it of their own will, nor yet be removed by the will of the master.

Some were entitled to the occupation of a cottage, in which case they were called by the Saxons, heorthr- fastmen : others rendered their services in the household of their lord.

The lowest class in the nation, not accounted even as belonging to the people, were the serfs, or bondmen, who were in every sense the property of their master.

Among the Normans who flocked to England during the early years of the conquest, were many men of low degree. Mechanics, peasants, and foot-soldiers in Normandy, assumed, on the opposite side of the Channel, the titles of nobleman and gentleman.

Whole families, obscure in birth, and destitute of fortune, from every comer of France, made their way into the new kingdom, sure of finding there an ample provision for every member, at the expense oftentimes of the noblest of the Saxon race, who were driven forth to destitution and beggary.

The ceremony was generally concluded by a kiss. By degrees, not only lands, but everything else came to be held in fief; the right to cut wood in the forests, or to fish in the streams, was thus obtained.

High and honorable offices were given in fief. Nor was military service the only condition on which estates were bestowed by the feudal baron.

Very frequently the cup-bearer, the steward, the master-of-the-horse, the carver, the butler, and the chamberlain held their lands in fief, for the domestic services which they rendered to their lord.

William the Conqueror owned fourteen hundred manors, besides a large number of houses, forests, parks, and chases.

Yet even this extravagant number of hunting-grounds did not satisfy him. To obtain another, more extensive than all the rest, he laid waste a beautiful district nearly ninety miles in circumference.

It lay in the south-west part of the province of Hampshire, near the royal city of Winchester. Thirty-six parish churches, amid their beautiful villages, and over a hundred pleasant manors, were destroyed by this pitiless king, that he might enjoy one more forest in which.

The wretched inhabitants were driven from their burning homes, the priests from their churches, the monks from their monasteries.

Well might the Saxon chronicler add, "this savage king loved wild beasts as if he had been their father. They believed that amid the shades of the New Forest the judgment of God would fall upon the wicked Con- queror and his posterity.

These prophecies had their fulfil- ment. This book, which is still preserved, is called " Doomsday Book. On his return, he brought some token from the holy places which he had visited.

Such pilgrims as had been in Palestine bore palm-branches, and were hence called palmers. There were Bethlehem and Nazareth, and there arose Jerusalem, the city of the great king, within whose walls lay the Holy Sepulchre.

For a long time. Christian pilgrims were allowed to visit these sacred scenes unmolested ; but in the eleventh century, when Palestine fell into the hands of the Turks, these fierce conquerors, more intolerant than the Saracens whom they had dispossessed, began to persecute Christian pilgrims.

In those days of warlike zeal, such preaching was eagerly followed, and in the year , a large army, numbering the bravest of Europe's knights and soldiers, took its march for the Holy Land.

Each warrior wore a cross embroidered on his garments, or painted on his shield. Hence, these wars took the name of Crusades, or wars of the cross.

Describe pilgrimages. HENRY I. AND STEPHEN. ENGLAND DURING THE TWELFTH CENTURY. HENRY L—STEPHEN— HENRY in:. CHAPTER XI.

On the death of William Rufus, Robert, heir to the crown, was far away in the Holy Land, and Henry Beauclerc, unmindful of his brother's rights, sped from the sad scene of death in the New Forest, and seized the throne.

Henry's subjects of Saxon race were favorably disposed towards him, because he was the only one of the Conqueror's sons who was English bom.

Still further to secure their good- will, he married an English princess — Edith, the great-grand- daughter of Edmund Ironsides.

The Saxon maiden was most unwilling to wed the son of the Norman Conqueror, but, after much entreaty, she gave her consent, in the hope that this union might be the means of reconciling the two people.

By the Saxon chroniclers she is called Maude the Good. For years the same brothers' strife which had made the last reigns so miserable, was kept up in this.

Nor did the contest end when Eobert lay Generous hearts in France and Flanders gathered around the Norman duke's young son, William Fitz-Robert, and for a time strove to win for him the English throne.

In the year , Fitz-Robert's cause was lost; and, having triumphed over every enemy, Henry thought he might enjoy his crown in quiet, and leave it in undisputed succession to his only and beloved son.

But He by whom kings rule, had ordained otherwise. The son William on whom the monarch's every hope was centred, and to whom he had caused all his nobles to swear allegiance, perished by shipwreck ; a calamity wfiich so affected King Henry, that it is said he was never afterwards seen to smile.

This event, however grievous to the heart of the royal father, was not so to the English nation. The young prince had been heard to say, that when he should be king, he would yoke Englishmen like oxen to his ploughs.

He summoned all his nobles, and made them take the same vows of obedi- ence to her which they had before taken to her brother.

At first, a second name was added to the Christian one, only to denote some individual peculiarity, as in the case of William Rufiis and Henry Beauclerc.

They had no common family surname sire-name. A young Norman lady refused to marry the husband whom King Henry chose for her, on the plea that he had but one name.

The Normans frequently took for a second name, that of the Norman home from which they had come. Thus the family of Seymours were so named from the French town of St.

Henry I. In compliance with a curious custom, common in those days, a portion only of his body was buried in that country ; the remainder was taken to England, and laid in the abbey church of Reading, which he had founded.

In the days of which we write, there was little love or reve- rence for truth among men ; least of all, among princes.

They multiplied oaths, and took them with great solemnity, on the altars, at the tombs of saints, and over shrines filled with sacred relics.

But the fbar of the God of truth had no place in their hearts. Thus the Norman barons who swore fealty to Matilda only, did so out of fear for the king, her father.

As soon as Henry was dead, these nobles placed the crown, not on the brow of the Countess of Anjou, as they had solemnly sworn to 68 HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Bands of lawless soldiery, retainers of the great barons, roamed about, plundering and burning. No one felt safe. The nation was so divided between the parties of Stephen and Matilda, that neighbor suspected neighbor, and brother had no confidence in brother.

In a whole day's journey, towns would be found without a single inhabitant, and the country without a culti- vated field. Some of the poor people built wretched huts near the walls of the churches, or in the graveyards, hoping that the sanctity of the place might preserve them from violence.

In the year , Matilda, broken in health and spirits, gave up fighting for the throne, and went back to Normandy. Her son, Henry Plantagenet, came into Eng- land, to contend for the cause which his mother had abandoned.

One good noble- man, the Earl of Arundel, boldly said : " It was a shame to increase the miseries of a whole nation, on account of the ambition of two princes.

They succeeded; and thus ended the weary and wicked struggle. By the terms of the peace, Stephen was to reign until his death, and then Henry Plantagenet was to succeed to the crown.

The death of Stephen occurred in the following year. Relate the domestic affliction which befell King Henry.

Who succeeded Henry I. CHAPTER XII. THE FIRST SIXTEEN YEARS OF HENRY II. KXTBKT or henry's DOMINIONS — HM QUARRELS WITH THE CHURCH— THOMAS A BECKBT.

The young Henry Plantagenet, a monarch at the early age of twenty-one, was the richest soveftign in Christendom. He was king of England and duke of Nor- mandy.

By the death of his father, in , he had become count of Anjou and Touraine. By his marriage with Eleanor, daughter of the earl of Poictou and duke of Aquitaine, he became lord of the vast territory which stretches between the mouth of the Loire and the Pyrenees, including some of the finest provinces of France.

He laid claim to the rich earldom of Toulouse, and destroyed the independence of the gay, light-hearted people, who, amid the beautiful valleys of Provence and Languedoc, had preserved, in that rude age, a home for poetry and the arts.

This monarch, Louis VII. The people of Henry's new provinces liked not the rule of the foieign master, and the wicked Eleanor stirred up his children to revolt.

These clouds cast their darkest shadows over the later years of this king's long and eventful reign. At first, trouble arose in a more unlooked-for quarter.

King William the Conqueror had made a law, by which it was forbidden to try any clergyman in the civil courts. Whatever the crime he had committed, he was only answerable to the bishops' or church courts.

The clergy could not, by their canon or church law, sentence one of their own order to death, nor were they disposed to be very severe towards clerical offenders ; and thus many an evil deed escaped the punishment which it deserved.

Although this law of William's was a very bad bne in many respects, yet it had come in the course of years, to be of great service to the English portion of the nation.

Many a Saxon villain escaped from the harsh tyranny of his Norman lord, and became a priest. The master might try in vain to recover him; for the cause could only be tried in the church courts, and the church never sent back to the plough, or the work- shop, any who had taken vows for the service of religion.

In this way, many a Saxon villain becfime free from servitude to the Norman, and for this reason the English population were friendly to the privileges of the clergy.

Henry II. Such a man Henry thought he had found in his chancellor, Thomas k Becket, who accordingly was made archbishop of Canterbury, in the year The history of this remarkable man is very interesting.

His father, Gilbert Becket, was a Saxon yeoman, who, in the reign of Henry I. There lie was taken prisoner, and became the slave of a Saracen chief.

During his captivity, Becket won the aflFection of the only daughter of his master. By her aid, he escaped from bondage and returned to England.

The Saracen maiden formed the bold design of following her lover. She knew but two English words, " London" and " Gilbert.

On arriving, she went through the streets of the city, crying " Gilbert," " Gilbert," until the sound of his name reached the ear of her lost lover.

Becket persuaded her to receive Christian baptism, and she became his wife. From this union of a Saxon yeoman and a Saracen maiden, sprang Thomas k Becket.

When very young, Thomas was sent to France, there to learn more perfectly the language of the conquerors, and to lose every trace of the English accent, which could betray him as one of the oppressed race.

Keturning to England, young, accomplished, with polished manners, and well versed in the arts of pleasing, he soon became a general favorite with the Norman lords.

Introduced at court, he rose high in the royal favor. When he was traveUing m France, his retinue ezeited the 72 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. He was preceded by two hundred and fifty singing boys; then came his hounds and light wagons, laden with provisions, his wardrobe and on this occasion we are told he had twenty-four changes of apparel , the furniture of his chapel, and of his bed- chamber.

Two of the wagons carried barrels of ale, to be distributed among the people. After the wagons, were led twelve beautiful horses, " having on each a kneeling groom, and a monkey in front of him.

As the people of France gazed upon this splendid pageant, they exclaimed, "What manner of man must the king of England be, when his chancellor travels in such state I" In return for all the favor bestowed upon him by the king, Thomas k Becket seemed devoted to the royal interests.

He attended Henry in his wars, and, although a churchman, donned armor of mail, and, at the head of seven hundred of his own vassals, captured French castles for the English king.

He aided Henry in breaking down the great power, of the " Norman barons, eleven hundred of whose castles, the strong- holds of robbery and cruelty, were levelled to the ground.

He even reproved the bishops who asserted their independ- ence, telling them that men of the church were as much bound to support the royal authority, as men of the sword.

It is true, that when the subject of the primacy was first named to Becket by the king, he said, laughingly, whilst pointing to his gay dress, " A fine saint you have chosen for so holy an office!

No sooner had Becket been installed primate of England, than, giving up his office, of chancellor, he dismissed bis retinue of knights and squires, and surrounded THE FIRST SIXTEEN TEARS OF HENRT II.

His delicate food was exchanged for the coarsest fare ; water, in which were steeped bitter herbs, supplied his daily drink. Sackcloth took the place of his costly raiment.

He washed the feet of beggars, and visited, with alms and prayers, the sick and the miserable. From indulging in every extravagance which even his luxurious taste could devise, he came now to abandon the most simple Bud innocent recreations of life.

The man of the world had become a rigid monk, and gained by his extraordinary austeri- ties the reputation of a saint.

The king's dismay at this change in the new arch- bishop was unbounded. That the devoted, pleasure- loving courtier, whose talents had been hitherto chiefly con- spicuous in ministering to the royal magnificence, should now set himself in opposition to the monarch's will, and rival the asceticism of a St.

Dunstan, was indeed matter of astonishment to the whole realm. The conduct of Becket, however, did not suffer the king's mind to remain long in doubt as to the reality of this strange transformation, and in this long and bitter con- troversy between Henry and his prelate, it must be conceded that h Becket was the first aggressor.

Henry very soon discovered that the views of Becket, as the courtier had asserted before his promotion, were widely different from his own on the subject of ecclesiastical autho- rity.

So fe,r from showing any willingness to abate the influ- ence of the clergy, the new primate did all in his power to increase and extend it.

In the county of Kent, on the banks of the Med- way, and scattered throughout other portions of that pleasant province, stood strong castles and fair manor-houses, which in more favored days had belonged to the see of Can- terbury.

Becket insisted on the restitution of them all. From the king himself he claimed the strong castle of Rochester, the position of which rendered it a place of great importance, and from the Earl of Clare he demanded the surrender of Tunbridge barony and castle.

The quarrel between the monarch and his once familiar friend became daily more violent. The king won over most of the bishops, and all the Norman nobles, to his side, and the primate was left single-handed in the struggle.

He had with him, only the hearts and prayers of the English portion of the nation, who saw with pride and delight, an archbishop of Saxon birth, opposing, with so much firmness, the power of a Norman king.

At Clarendon, near Salisbury, the king held a large assembly of bishops and nobles. He presented to them sixteen articles known as the Constitutions of Claren- don for the regulation of the church.

Big Innocent Eyes&excl Title Young Wild West's risky ride, or, Arietta and the Gulch Gang Publication Date October 11, Genre serial Holding Location University of South Florida. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. The king drew his Porn Women Friendly, but the string broke. The religion of these Pagans has long since passed away, and yet, says an English writer, Big Innocent Eyes&excl euFfentlich Wichsen of Deutscher Bdsm old superstition still linger in the popular sports and pastimes of the people. This prelate, although more than ninety years old, acted with such vigor, that the rebellion was put down before William had recrossed the Channel. S 50 BISTORT OV ENGLAND. Then he got upon his bands and knees and crawled around, being compel! The mutineers, the dispatch adds, have defied the imperial troops sent agaimt them. Eight hours were given to the aflfairs of the state, eight to study and devo- tion, and eight to sleep, exercise, and refreshment. He made his cavalry trample down the grain-fields, and ordered his soldiers to root up the vines, and to cut down the trees. Finally Arietta became tired of the man's company and she started for the kitchen, where Mrs. If we find that they have gone right on we'll c ome back and mount again and follow Dart nodded to show tha t ho was perfectly satisfied with what the boy sai d, and then the tw o proceeded on and rounded an angle of the cliff. ARIET'rA's PERIL. The Christian Church in Ireland did not acknow- ledge the authority of the Pope, and the Roman pontiff, offended at this independence, was quite ready to give his countenance to any king who would conquer the 'island, and bring it under subjection to the Papal see. Go ahead, Dick.

Big Innocent Eyes&excl ist sehr gut aufgebaut, Meiningen Erotik sehr offen und ehrlich ber Sex redet. - Item is in your basket

Trackliste Interview Questions 1 Where Are Your Feelings Now That The Album Is Finished?

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

1 Kommentar

  1. Goltishakar

    Welcher neugierig topic

  2. Dakora

    Es ist einfach unvergleichlich topic

  3. Karg

    Bitte, erklären Sie ausführlicher

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.

« Ältere Beiträge